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Ayurveda is a holistic science of health, focusing on maintaining spiritual, physical and emotional balanced state. Ayurveda is an old Indian system of medicine which promotes the body and offers a lot of benefits that brings happiness to life, and treats what is harmful for the body like disease, stress and unhappy states of life. In other words, Ayurvedic system of medicine creates an important environment and gives value to the well-being of a patient.

Ayurveda was derived from Artharva Veda and Vedic era is considered to be the time when Ayueveda flourished as a science. It is estimated that around 1000 B.C., two major texts Samhita of Ayurveda, Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita were composed. Charaka Samhita deals with medicine and Sushruta Samhita deals with surgery. Distinguished scholars were attracted to the science of Ayurveda and visited India for acquiring scientific language.

Ayurveda is based on peculiar fundamental principles like Tridosha (three humours vata, pitta and kapha) theory and Pancamahabhuta (five elements ether, air, fire, water and earth) theory. Imbalances of the three humours are considered to be the root cause of the disease.

  • Vata is a combination of air
  • Pitta is a combination of earth and fire
  • Kapha is a combination of ether and water

Further Five Subtypes Of Vata; Pitta And Kapha Have Been Described In Ayurveda. These Are Enumerated Below:

Five Types of Vata

  • Prana vayu: The main function of Prana vayu is swallowing, breathing and blood circulation
  • Udana vayu: The main function of Udana vayu is memory, speech and sound
  • Vyana vayu: The main function of Vyana vayu is blinking, perspiration and other movements
  • Samana vayu: The main function of Samana vayu is digestion of food-stuffs and formation of waste products
  • Apana vayu: The main function of Apana vayu is excretion of the excreta including urine and stools (waste products)

Five Types of Pitta

  • Ranjaka pitta: The main function of Ranjaka pitta is to impart colour to the blood, bile and faeces.
  • Sadhaka pitta: The main function of Sadhaka pitta is dealing with memory and intellect.
  • Alochaka pitta: The main function of Alochaka pitta is concerned with visual perception.
  • Bharajaka pitta: The main function of Bharajaka pitta is concerned with the colouration of the skin.
  • Pachaka pitta: The main function of Pachaka pitta is concerned with digestion of foods.

Five Types of Kapha

  • Tarpaka kapha: The main function of Tarpaka kapha is concerned with hearing and sensory perception.
  • Avalambaka kapha: The main function of Avalambaka kapha is concerned with protection the lungs and the heart.
  • Kledaka kapha: The main function of Kledaka kapha is concerned with process the digestion of foods.
  • Bodhaka kapha: The main function of Bodhaka kapha is concerned with gustatory percrption.
  • Sleshaka kapha: The main function of Sleshaka kapha is to deal with the lubrication of the joints.

The aim of the treatment is in correcting the imbalance of the biological humours. The great seers of Ayurveda developed peculiar method for testing the potency of the drugs. If the literature is consisted, it can be concluded that drugs like Harada, Arjuna, Atibala and Shilajeet seems to be thoroughly investigated for their medical activities.

The diagnosis of the disease is largely based on pulse examination. An expert Ayurvedic doctor is in a position to tell about the disease process by examining the pulse.

Detailed investigation includes:-

  • Interrogation of the patient in terms of the body constitution, exercising and digestive capacity, objective examination to assess the progress of the disease.
  • Examination by inference like colour of skin, urine and state of the pupil.

Ayurvedic pharmacy is a vast subject. Dravyaguna deals with the study of drugs derived from nature and Rasa-Shastra deals with study of minerals.

Drug Formulation In Ayurveda Is Based On The Following Seven Parameters:

  • Dravya (Substance)
  • Rasa (Taste)
  • Guna (Property)
  • Virya (Post-digestion effect)
  • Prabhva (Therapeutics)
  • Karma (Pharmacological activity)

Dravya is described as substance used for medical purpose. According to Ayurvedic principles, every component of the universe is dravya and is of medical value. Drugs derived from herbs, minerals and animals source, all include in dravya. Charaka Samhita has described dravya to be the nucleus of Ayurvedic pharmacy.

The diagnosis of a disease is based on the imbalance of the biological humours (vata, pitta and kapha) and treatment is based on six tastes (sweet, sour, salt, pungent, bitter and astringent).

Property (guna) parameter is a vast topic. Ayurveda described forty-one properties comparable to physical properties of the drugs.

Virya (potency) is described as active constituent of the drug. Virya (potency) is responsible for pharmacological activity of the medicinal herb. The drugs have cold and hot potencies.

Vipaka and prabhava are comparable with biotransformation and therapeutic activity of the drug.

Karma describes pharmacological activity of the drug.